There are a number of procedures to
augment, modify and reconstruct body shape. Some are presented below along with
a brief outline of the procedure. Follow the link in the item title or within
the text for more detailed information sheets.
Reconstructive breast surgery is
one of the most common procedures that the plastic surgeon is called upon to
perform. With increasing cases of breast cancer annually, the number of women
seeking reconstruction is at an all time high. It has become increasingly popular to reconstruct
the breast at the same time as the mastectomy, thereby preventing a period of
complete absence of the breast. The emotional advantages to the patients are
clear, but not all women are candidates for immediate reconstruction.
The advantages and disadvantages of immediate reconstruction should be discussed
with both the Oncology Surgeon and the Plastic Surgeon.
The majority of breast
reconstruction is delayed until after the mastectomy is performed and the
wounds are all healed. We encourage the
patient to complete any therapies prior to
beginning the reconstruction surgery.
There are many techniques available
to the reconstructive surgeon looking to improve a patientís appearance after a
mastectomy. The final choice depends on patient desires, body habitus,
available tissue, appearance of the opposite breast and the health of the
patient. The realistic goal of reconstructive surgery should always be the
improvement of appearance and not the perfect replacement of the breast.
The key to a successful
reconstruction is careful selection both of the patient and of the operation,
which is appropriate for the individual patient. As
big surgery the patient should become as healthy and possible and stop
The size of breasts is
genetically determined. Once developed the breasts may fluctuate in size in
response to changes in weight, pregnancy and breast feeding. The aging process
causes the shape of the breast to change so that they gradually droop (called
ptosis). The effect is greater following pregnancy, breast feeding and in
particular after a large weight loss. Most women have breasts of slightly
different sizes, but occasionally a very marked difference may develop.
Breasts can be made larger by
placing an implant either under the breast tissue or behind the muscle on
which the breast lies. This operation is known as an
The size of women's breasts may
be determined by several factors, such as inherited genes, body weight,
and hormonal influences. They can be a problem to some women early in
adolescence or may not become uncomfortable until middle age following the
menopause or the use of HRT. However similar problems exist in all ages -
backache, neck pain, grooves from bra straps, rashes and the psychological
issue of self consciousness.
Reduction Mammaplasty is an operation
which removes the excess fat and skin from the breasts, which are
reshaped and the nipples repositioned to form newer smaller breasts.
The Tummy Tuck - also called an
Abdominoplasty, is a
procedure used to remove excess skin and fat, tighten muscles and improve
abdominal contours and scars.
The excess skin
and fat of the abdominal wall between the pubic area and the navel is
removed, leaving the navel in place. Any looseness of the muscle of the
abdominal wall or hernia is repaired at the same time.
Liposuction may be
carried out at the same time or after the
Droopiness of the breast is a
common legacy of motherhood, nursing and the force of gravity. Putting on
weight and then losing it can have the same effect. So too does the aging
process, which is why many women dislike the appearance of their droopy
What can be done? Whilst it is not
possible to recreate surgically the natural supporting structure of the breast,
it is possible to reshape the breast into one which looks more youthful and
feels more firm. The operation is called a
Liposuction is a technique to remove unwanted fat
deposits. The unsightly distribution of body fat
is usually due to an inborn tendency to deposit fat in one particular area
of the body, most commonly the hips. Other areas include the neck, arms,
tummy, loins, thighs, inner sides of the knees and the ankles. The growth
of a benign fat tumour (lipoma) can also be a disfigurement, and in men
fatty swellings can develop under the nipples and look like breasts (gynaecomastia).
If you have a localised area of fat it is possible to reduce the bulk by
an operation called
Liposuction. A narrow metal tube is inserted through a small
incision in the nearby skin. It is attached to a strong vacuum pump and is
drawn back and forth within the area of excess fat. The process removes
tunnels of fat leaving the small blood vessels and nerves intact. The skin
will then retract.
The size and appearance of the
inner labia varies from woman to woman. Sometimes one is much larger than
the other, or both may seem large and cause embarrassment.
Long labia may also produce
chaffing and discomfort.
It is possible to reduce or
equalize the labia via the newest techniques, thereby reducing discomfort
as well as improving the cosmetic appearance.
The operation is done under
general anaesthesia. It may be done as a day case, or with an over-night
stay in hospital.
- Telephone / Appointments
- Pauline Osborne (+44) 01603 279805
- (+44) 01603 279805
- Postal address
Hill House Consulting Rooms BUPA Hospital, Old Watton Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7TD
- Electronic mail